Survival of all living organisms is supported by a large group of molecular nanomachines that are involved in important fundamental cellular processes such as, the synthesis of new nucleic acids, or proteins. Others play a critical role in response to adverse, potentially lethal changes in their environment, leading to the activation or mobilization of survival mechanisms. Some of these macro molecular machines have been structurally characterized to an impressive atomic detail which has defined their molecular function. However, given the complexity of protein macro molecular machines they are often studied in isolation which is in clear contrast to their actual molecular environment. We are in the era where the connectivity between various cellular processes are at the forefront of scientific vision and exploration and my research program focuses on understanding the molecular basis underlying the function of complex, structurally uncharacterized protein macro molecular machines. The Williams Lab merges, X-ray crystallography, cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) single molecule reconstruction, with biochemical, genetic, and in vivo studies, to address fundamental issues in the physiology of bacteria. Our multidisciplinary approach has the potential to yield discoveries that influence, microbiology, drug discovery and development and to combat antibiotic drug resistance.